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Hints offered by S Cammack

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Section 1

Question 1

Hint 1: Remember that the formula for this calculation is in the front of your data booklet

Question 2

Hint 1: Remember that rate units are always QUANTITY units PER TIME units

Question 3

Hint 1: Look at page 6 of your data booklet and spot the link between group number and the number of outer electrons

Question 4

Hint 1: In a neutral atom, the number of positive protons and negative electrons are equal.

Hint 2: Think about what has been LOST to form a positively charged ion.

Question 5

Hint 1: No hint available

Question 6

Hint 1: Look at the shape that the 3 bonds are making on the table - if this was a solid shape, what would it look like?

Question 7

Hint 1: You need to identify the ions in each formula (2 in each)

Hint 2: Then use page 6 to work out the electron arrangement of each one

Question 8

Hint 1: Think about bonding.

Hint 2: Which two types of bonding conduct electricity?

Question 9

Hint 1: No hint available

Question 10

Hint 1: The formula for this is on page 3 of your data booklet.

Hint 2: Remember to count the number of N atoms.

Question 11

Hint 1: Visualise the pH scale - what direction will the pH move in?

Hint 2: Remember that alkaline solutions have more hydroxide than hydrogen ions.

Question 12

Hint 1: Remember that bases have 3 possible name endings: metal h_________, metal o__________ and metal ca____________.

Question 13

Hint 1: Draw out the structures

Hint 2: Which one could not have a different structure but still have the same number of C and H atoms?

Question 14

Hint 1: Draw the structure!

Hint 2: Then look for the longest chain - what would this be called?

Hint 3: Are there branches? Which carbons are they on?

Hint 4: Look at the examples on page 9 of your data booklet if you have forgotten how to name these.

Question 15

Hint 1: The reason that this forms two products is that it is unsymmetrical.

Question 16

Hint 1: Study the first reaction carefully!

Hint 2: Spot the difference - what happens to the structure on going from a ketone to an alkane.

Hint 3: Now apply these same changes to the example given.

Question 17

Hint 1: Formula mass = GFM.

Hint 2: Remember that the longer the chain, the less soluble.

Question 18

Hint 1: What is the link between voltage and the distance between metals on the electrochemical series?

Hint 2: Find each combination on the ECS (page 10) and use this rule to choose the correct voltage.

Hint 3: Use the TREND - you are not being expected to calculate anything here.

Question 19

Hint 1: Look at the results of the reactions and order the metals from least to most reactive.

Question 20

Hint 1: Draw this structure.

Hint 2: There are 3 monomers in this structure - circle each one and then identify the one which was propene (3 carbons).

Hint 3: Now identify the other monomer.

Question 21

Hint 1: Think back to your experiments from rates of reactions - what equipment did you use to collect gas in those experiments?

Question 22

Hint 1: Use page 6 of your data book!

Question 23

Hint 1: It is the same gas that puts out a lit splint.

Question 24

Hint 1: A solid is formed in this reaction - what is another name for a solid being formed?

Question 25

Hint 1: Spectator ions are not involved in the reaction - they do not change charge or state when going from reactants to products.

Hint 2: If in doubt, write down the charge for each ion and then look at whether it changes going from reactants to products. If not, it is a spectator!

Section 2

Question 1

1a) Hint 1: It has the same structure as diamond

1b)i) Hint 2: These two atoms have a different number of neutrons but same number of protons (atomic number) - what is the name for this?

1b)ii) Hint 3: Remember that mass number = total protons + neutrons

1b)iii) Hint 4: Relative atomic mass is an AVERAGE, taking into account the mass numbers of each isotope and the abundance of each.

1b)iii) Hint 5: Look at the masses of the two isotopes - if the average is 10.2, which isotope do you think must be more common (abundant)?

1c) Hint 6: 24% of 500g

Question 2

2a) Hint 1: Remember that these are both alcohols

2a) Hint 2: Which functional group would you find in an alcohol?

2b) Hint 3: Read paragraph 2 carefully - the answer is in there!

2c) Hint 4: Remember that salts often end in -ide or -ate.

2d) Hint 5: Remember that mass of one mole = GFM (use page 7 of the data book)

Question 3

3a) Hint 1: Use page 6 of your data book to draw the outer electrons in one single atom of N.

3a) Hint 2: Then identify how many electrons it needs to share and

3a) Hint 3: Then draw another diagram showing the two atoms overlapping, with the shared pairs in between.

3b) Hint 4: One of the products would be ammonium hydroxide.

3c)i) Hint 5: No hint available

3c)ii) Hint 6: No hint available.

3d) Hint 7: All the answers are in the paragraph - read it very carefully!

Question 4

4a) Hint 1: Occurs in the same place as you would find protons and neutrons.

4b)i) Hint 2: This is a standard definition that you should learn: time taken for ...

4b)ii) Hint 3: Start with 100% - how much would be lost after one half life (8 days?), then two half lives ...

4b)ii) Hint 4: Continue until you reach 24 days. What percentage would be left?

4b)iii) Hint 5: Half life of an element is independent of external factors.

Question 5

5a) Hint 1: Remember the bromine water test ... what happens?

5b)i) Hint 2: Identify what small molecule is being added across the double bond.

5b)i) Hint 3: This gives you a clue for the name of this reaction!

5b)ii) Hint 4: This is very similar to part (b)(i).

5b)ii) Hint 5: Identify what small molecule is being added across the double bond.

5b)ii) Hint 6: This gives you a clue for the name of this reaction!

5b)iii) Hint 7: Remember that the rule for naming polymers - add the word 'poly' in front of the monomer name. (You will have to work out the name of the monomer first)

5c)i) Hint 8: Calculate number of moles of cyclohexene (formula on page 3).

5c)i) Hint 9: Use the mole ratio to find moles of ethene

5c)i) Hint 10: Then convert to mass (rearrange formula from step 1)

5c)ii) Hint 11: Remember that more carbons = more forces of attraction between molecules.

Question 6

6c)ii) Hint 1: This is an open ended question. Some ideas to discuss - metal oxides and non-metals oxides in water and pH of solution (acid and alkalis topic)…

6c)ii) Hint 2: … bonding in metal oxides and link to properties …

6c)ii) Hint 3: … bonding in non-metal oxides such as carbon dioxide and link to properties.

Question 7

7a) Hint 1: A definition that you need to learn. 'A family of compounds with ...'

7b)i) Hint 2: Work out the general formula using the molecular formula given in the formula.

7b)ii) Hint 3: Use the general formulae that you worked out for part (b)(i) to answer this question.

7c) Hint 4: Calculate the difference between each boiling point and use this information to answer the question.

Question 8

8a) Hint 1: Read paragraph 4 carefully.

8b) Hint 2: Find the chemical name for Beryl in the passage

8b) Hint 3: Then use this to identify the elements.

8c) Hint 4: The information that you need for this is in the passage

8c) Hint 5: You will need to work out the formula for each reactant and product (use SVSDF)

8d) Hint 6: Write down the formula for a Be ion, including its charge

8d) Hint 7: Work out whether oxidation or reduction has to occur to turn this into a Be atom (OILRIG)

8e) Hint 8: Information about this particle in the paragraph

8e) Hint 9: Think about which sub-atomic particle has mass but no charge (is neutral).

Question 9

9a) Hint 1: ___________thermic

9b)i) Hint 2: The equation for this is on page 3 of the data booklet.

9b)ii) Hint 3: No hint available

9c)i) Hint 4: No hint available.

9c)ii) Hint 5: Look at the first two example in the table

9c)ii) Hint 6: What happens to the structure when it becomes an aldehyde?

9c)ii) Hint 7: Apply these same changes to the molecule you have been given.

9c)ii) Hint 8: Note: this is a problem solving question. You are not supposed to know about aldehydes.

Question 10

10a) Hint 1: This is a __________ bridge

10b)i) Hint 2: Remember that electrons from more element higher in electrochemical series to element lower in ECS.

10b)ii) Hint 3: Use page 10 to identify if this is oxidation or reduction.

10b)iii) Hint 4: You must have the same number of electrons in each equation before you can add them together!

10b)iii) Hint 5: Do you need to multiply either equation by anything?

10b)iii) Hint 6: Remember to multiply the whole equation, not just the electrons.

10c) Hint 7: Think about the bonding and properties of carbon graphite

Question 11

11a) Hint 1: Use SVSDF to work out formula

11a) Hint 2: Then add charges.

11a) Hint 3: Remember metals have a +ve charge and non-metals have a -ve charge.

11b) Hint 4: Look at the name ending of the salt and work out which acid must have been used.

11c) Hint 5: No hint available

11d) Hint 6: No hint available

Question 12

12a)i) Hint 1: This is called a s____________ solution

12a)ii) Hint 2: The formula for this is on page 3 of your data booklet.

12a)ii) Hint 3: Remember to divide the volume by 1000 to convert to litres.

12b)i) Hint 4: No hint available.

12b)ii) Hint 5: No hint available

12b)iii) Hint 6: These values are con________ (within 0.2ml of each other)

12c) Hint 7: This is a titration calculation

12c) Hint 8: The first thing to do it to write down ALL the information given to you in this question and in the diagram above it.

12c) Hint 9: You should use the formula n = cv

12c) Hint 10: Remember to convert volumes to litres by dividing by 1000.

Question 13

Hint 1: This is an open ended question which relates to bonding as this is where we deal with forces of attraction.

Hint 2: Think about covalent molecular substances and how these affect the properties.

Hint 3: You can also discuss electrostatic attraction and where this arises (ionic bonding, covalent bonding between nucleus and electrons, metallic bonding between positive ions and electrons).

Hint 4: Discuss the properties of these types of bonding, in particular melting point.

Hint 5: You could also discuss the trend in boiling point of a hydrocarbon as the chain length increases as this is also related to the size/strength of intermolecular forces.

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