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Hint 1: Scalar only requires direction
Hint 1: Displacement is distance away from start point with direction.
Hint 2: If you start and finish at the same point, displacement has to be zero.
Hint 1: At maximum height, instantaneous velocity is zero, acceleration is not.
Hint 2: What causes a falling object to accelerate on Earth?
Hint 3: Which direction does a falling object accelerate on Earth? The unbalanced force will be in this direction.
Hint 1: Work Done = Force × Distance
Hint 2: Power = Energy/Time (In this case the energy is the work done)
Hint 1: Moons orbit planets, planets orbit stars, stars form………..
Hint 1: As height increases above the Earth's surface, orbital period increases.
Hint 2: Height is above 630 km, so period must be above 97 minutes.
Hint 3: Is 23000 km above or below 36000 km?
Hint 1: If the engine is off, there are no forces acting on the probe.
Hint 2: No force is the same as balanced forces.
Hint 1: Mass is the amount of matter in an object. It does not change from place to place.
Hint 2: Weight = m×g. if mass, m, is constant and g increases, what has happened to W?
Hint 1: a light year is the distance light travels in 1 year
Hint 2: 1 year = 365.25×24×60×60 seconds
Hint 3: The speed of light is 3 x 10⁸ ms-1
Hint 1: All spectral ines in an element must be present in the spectrum from the star for the star to contain that element
Hint 1: Factual recall: go back to your notes if you can't answer this question.
Hint 1: Opposite charges attract, like charges repel
Hint 2: the particle is attracted to Q, it is repelled by R
Hint 3: Particle has opposite charge to Q, same charge as R
Hint 1: The thermistor and variable resistor form a potential divider circuit
Hint 2: Supply p.d. is shared according to the proportion of resistance of components
Hint 3: If resistance decreases, p.d. share across that componenet decreases.
Hint 4: p.d. increases across other component (variable resistor in this case)
Hint 5: Transistor switches on.
Hint 1: Calculate parallel resistance first
Hint 2: 1/RT = 1/R₁ + 1/R₂
Hint 3: Add series resistance to parallel total
Hint 1: P = V²/R
Hint 2: P = 12²/4
Hint 1: States of matter in order of coldest to hottest: Solid, liquid, gas
Hint 2: Melting is first change of state
Hint 3: Melting is at first horizontal line
Hint 1: Question asks force due to pressure DIFFERENCE
Hint 2: Find force on inside and take away force on outside
Hint 3: P = F/A
Hint 1: 1°C is equivalent to 1 Kelvin
Hint 2: Find difference between the two temperatures
Hint 1: If volume decreases, pressure must increase
Hint 2: Volume decreases by a factor of 5
Hint 3: Pressure must increase by a factor of 5.
Hint 1: Microwaves are shorter than TV waves, so both II and III cannot be correct
Hint 2: REFRACTION occurs when waves pass from one medium to another
Hint 1: Gamma has highest frequency and energy of all electromagnetic radiation
Hint 2: X-rays are quite penetrating so have high energy
Hint 1: Only A is squared in the equation
Hint 1: Be careful with units in this question
Hint 2: How many hours in 30 minutes?
Hint 3: Equivalent dose = Equivalent dose rate × time
Hint 1: Half life involves halfing activity
Hint 2: Half the initial activity until you reach 25kBq
Hint 3: Count the number of halves you have done.
Hint 4: Half life = (total time)/(number of half lives)
Hint 1: Fission is splitting.
1a)i)A) Hint 1: For scale diagram, write down your scale
1a)i)A) Hint 2: draw vectors tip to tail
1a)i)A) Hint 3: Measure length of resultant and use your scale
1a)i)A) Hint 4: Draw vectors tip to tail and use Pythagoras' Theorem
1a)i)B) Hint 5: If scale diagram drawn, use protractor to find angle and then bearing
1a)i)B) Hint 6: Use SOH CAH TOA to find the correct angle, then convert to bearing
1a)ii) Hint 7: m = 6.8×10⁴ kg. Fun = answer to part (a)(i)(A)
1a)ii) Hint 8: Fun = ma
1b) Hint 9: Question mentions fuel decreasing, this means mass decreases
1b) Hint 10: mass and weight are linked by W = mg
1b) Hint 11: P = F/A The Force is W in this case
2a)i) Hint 1: Instanteneous speed = (length of card) / (time to pass through gate)
2a)i) Hint 2: Length of card given in question
2a)ii) Hint 3: length of card = 0.045 m, time through gate y = 0.098s
2a)ii) Hint 4: Instanteneous speed = 0.045/0.098
2a)iii) Hint 5: a = ?, u = 0.32ms-1, v = 0.46ms-1, t = 0.56s
2a)iii) Hint 6: a = (v - u)/t
2b) Hint 7: What does area under a v-t graph give?
2b) Hint 8: Area under v-t graph = distance travelled
2b) Hint 9: Area of a triangle = ½ base × height
2c) Hint 10: Trolley decelarates rapidly, then travels in opposite direction, until it comes to rest
2c) Hint 11: The gradient going up and down the hill will be the same.
3a) Hint 1: m = 75 kg, v = 8.0 ms-1, Ek = ?
3a) Hint 2: Ek = ½ mv²
3b)i) Hint 3: Which energy Is gained when raised up away from earth?
3b)i) Hint 4: Apply conservation of energy principles
3b)i) Hint 5: Ek = Ep
3b)i) Hint 6: Ep = mgh
3b)i) Hint 7: g = 9.8 Nkg-1
3b)ii) Hint 8: Where is energy lost to in every situation in National 5 Physics?!
3c)i) Hint 9: cyclist is travelling with constant horizontal speed and constant vertical acceleration
3c)ii) Hint 10: a = 9.8 ms-2, u = 0 ms-1, t = 0.40s
3c)ii) Hint 11: a = (v - u)/t
4a)i) Hint 1: 1 AU = 1.5×1011 therefore 1.52 AU = 1.52 × 1.5×1011
4a)ii) Hint 2: You need extra information: what is travelling from the Sun to Mars and how fast does this travel?
4a)ii) Hint 3: v = 3.0 x 108 ms-1, d = answer from part (a)(i), t = ?
4a)ii) Hint 4: d = vt
4b)i) Hint 5: You must state the device that converts light to electrical energy
4b)ii) Hint 6: Factual recall: go back to your notes if you can't answer this question.
Hint 1: OEQ - Consider, are astronauts weightless? Do they float? What is the ISS doing to stay in orbit?
6a) Hint 1: The circuit is a potential divider
6a) Hint 2: Vs = 4V, R1 = 2.0Ω, R2 = 18Ω
6a) Hint 3: V₂ = (R₂/(R₁+R₂))×Vs
6b)i) Hint 4: Are LEDs high or low current devices?
6b)i) Hint 5: What happens to current in a circuit when you increase resistance?
6b)ii) Hint 6: Vs = 3.4V, I = 25mA = 0.025A, Vled = 1.6V, R = ?
6b)ii) Hint 7: To find R, you will need information about the resistor. Current is given in the question.
6b)ii) Hint 8: The pd across resistor = Vs - Vled
6b)ii) Hint 9: Now use V = IR to find resistance
6c) Hint 10: Q = ?, t = 6 hours, I = 0.135A
6c) Hint 11: t should be in seconds
6c) Hint 12: There are 60 × 60 seconds in an hour
6c) Hint 13: Q = It
6c) Hint 14: Q = It = 0.135 × 6 × 60 × 60
Hint 1: What happens to a wire if current passes through it?
Hint 2: What happens to gas in a sealed container if the temperature increases?
8a)i) Hint 1: Eh = 21 600J, m = 0.50kg, ΔT = 24 - 16
8a)i) Hint 2: Eh = mcΔT
8a)ii) Hint 3: Calculation assumes all heat energy goes into the water. Does it?
8a)ii) Hint 4: Where does the energy go?
8b) Hint 5: I = 4.0A, V = 12V, E = 21 600J, t =?
8b) Hint 6: Can you think of an equation that links t to any of the information given?
8b) Hint 7: P = E/t
8b) Hint 8: To find P we need to use I and V (P = IV)
8c) Hint 9: Vapourisation is changing state from liquid to gas
8c) Hint 10: Temperature stays the same for state change, so is not required in calculations
8c) Hint 11: The equation including l is E = ml and in order to calculate l we would need m and E - what do these letters mean?
9a)i) Hint 1: All data means you must use all 8 numbers in the question
9a)i) Hint 2: p/T should be constant
9a)i) Hint 3: Calculate p/T for each set of data
9a)ii) Hint 4: The kinetic model describes gas as small particles moving around.
9a)ii) Hint 5: If temperature increases, what happens to the kinetic energy of particles?
9a)ii) Hint 6: The increase in temperature causes an increase in kinetic energy. How will this affect how often particles hit the walls?
9a)ii) Hint 7: The increase in temperature causes an increase in kinetic energy. How will this affect how much Force particles hit the wall with?
9a)iii) Hint 8: Your answer from part (a)(i) might help
9a)iii) Hint 9: For every 20K temperature drop, there is between 6 and 9 kPa pressure drop
9b) Hint 10: What can be changed to ensure all of the gas in the flask is being heated?
9b) Hint 11: Is the gas in the small tube being heated? How could you reduce the impact of this on the experiment?
10a) Hint 1: t = 2.1 × 10-8s, d = ?
10a) Hint 2: The equation linking t and d is d = vt
10a) Hint 3: Do you know the speed of microwaves?
10a) Hint 4: Microwaves travel at the speed of light (it is on the data sheet on page 2 of the exam)
10a) Hint 5: d = vt = 3×108 × 2.1×10 -8. Be careful when entering this in your calculator.
10b)i) Hint 6: Longitudinal refers to the direction of energy tranfer and vibration of the medium
10b)ii) Hint 7: count the number of waves in the picture (more lines together is the start and end of a wave)
10b)ii) Hint 8: wavelength = (total length)/(number of waves)
10b)ii) Hint 9: wavelength = 0.272/4
10b)iii) Hint 10: We are taking about sound waves, so be careful with speed
10b)iii) Hint 11: λ = answer from part (b)(ii), v = 340 ms-1, f = ?
10b)iii) Hint 12: v = fλ
10b)iii) Hint 13: 340 = f × 0.068
11a)) Hint 1: Factual recall: can you remember the list of IR detectors?
11a)) Hint 2: The one you pick must be suitable for use with a windscreen
11b)) Hint 3: What is the definition of frequency?
11b)) Hint 4: Frequency = (number of waves)/(vibrations per second)
11b)) Hint 5: At 70% light received, number of raindrops is in the medium zone (from graph)
11b)) Hint 6: N = 54 (per minute)
11b)) Hint 7: f = 54/60
11c)i)A) Hint 8: A normal is a line at right angles to the surface at the point the light enters/exits
11c)i)B) Hint 9: the angle of incidence is the angle between the ray and the normal heading toward the surface boundary
11c)i)B) Hint 10: angle of refraction is the angle between the ray and the normal heading away the surface boundary
11c)ii) Hint 11: Light is refracting away from normal in glass
11c)ii) Hint 12: therefore wavelength must be greater in water.
11c)ii) Hint 13: frequency is constant, therefore wavelength is greater in water.
11c)ii) Hint 14: Light must be speeding up in water
12a)) Hint 1: There are 3 types of radiation: one is comprised of 2 neutrons and 2 protons, one is a fast moving electron and one is high frequency electromagnetic radiation.
12b)) Hint 2: What happens to the activity of a radioactive source over time?
12b)) Hint 3: Approximately how many half lives have occurred?
12b)) Hint 4: Appoximately how many of the radioactive nuclei have decayed?
12b)) Hint 5: What effect will a reduction in tritium nuclei have on the ability of the coating to emit visible light?
12c)i) Hint 6: D = 0.40mGy = 0.0004Gy, m = 85 kg, E = ?
12c)i) Hint 7: D = E/m
12c)i) Hint 8: 0.0004 = E/85
12c)ii) Hint 9: D = 0.0004Gy, H = ? Is there any other information that we can get fom the question?
12c)ii) Hint 10: The source is emitting Beta radiation
12c)ii) Hint 11: All radiation has an associated weighting factor: they are on page 2 of the exam paper.
12c)ii) Hint 12: Wr = 1
12c)ii) Hint 13: H = D×Wr
13a)i) Hint 1: Background radiation is always present.
13a)i) Hint 2: If you are trying to measure the radiation from a particular source, what do we need to do with the background radiation count?
13a)ii) Hint 3: Factual recall: can you remember the list of background sources?
13b)i) Hint 4: Think what makes a good graph.
13b)i) Hint 5: Axis labels with units
13b)i) Hint 6: Consistent scales
13b)i) Hint 7: Accurately plotted data
13b)i) Hint 8: Dependent variable on vertical axis (corrected count rate) and Independent variable on horizontal axis (time).
13b)ii) Hint 9: You are trying to find the time it takes for the source activity to half.
13b)ii) Hint 10: Pick an activity value that is easy to half, say 600, note the corresponding time.
13b)ii) Hint 11: Half the activity, find corresponding time
13b)ii) Hint 12: Half life is the difference between these times.
13c)i) Hint 13: How far can alpha particles travel in air?
13c)i) Hint 14: Will alpha radiation reach the detector as currently setup?
13c)i) Hint 15: What needs to change to allow alpha particles to reach the detector?
13c)ii) Hint 16: A = 520Bq, t = 15s, N = ?
13c)ii) Hint 17: A = N/t
13c)ii) Hint 18: 520 = N/15