Hints offered by S Chambers

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Section 1

Question 1

Hint 1: Use one of the SUVAT equations

Hint 2: Remember that u = starting velocity, v = final velocity

Hint 3: Use v² = u² + 2as and rearrange to find s

Question 2

Hint 1: On the graph, is downwards motion considered positive or negative?

Hint 2: Downwards is considered positive

Hint 3: This means negative parts of the graph must be upwards!

Question 3

Hint 1: Both blocks will accelerate at the same rate as they are joined together

Hint 2: If both blocks have 4N of force against motion, that is 8N of force in total

Question 4

Hint 1: Speed increasing at a constant rate' = Constant acceleration

Hint 2: The 'weighing machine' will measure the reaction force

Hint 3: If accelerating down, the downwards force (weight) must be [...] than the upwards force (reaction force)

Hint 4: [...] = larger

Question 5

Hint 1: Use F = (Gm_{1}m_{2})/r^{2}

Question 6

Hint 1: Special relativity is based on the fact that [...] is the same in all reference frames

Hint 2: [...] = speed of light

Question 7

Hint 1: Time will be dilated (get longer) for the observer

Question 8

Hint 1: If you cubed them, there would be 216 of them

Question 9

Hint 1: the answer ends in '...on'

Question 10

Hint 1: Use your left hand for this one, as it is a positive charge

Question 11

Hint 1: 236 - 141 - 3 = ?

Hint 2: Irradiance will have decreased as distance from the source increased

Question 12

Hint 1: Irradiance will have decreased as distance from the source increased

Hint 2: It is an inverse squared law, so if the distance is tripled, the irradiance must fall by 3^{2}

Question 13

Hint 1: The central maxima is m = 0

Hint 2: P is at m = 5

Question 14

Hint 1: Frequency does not change when passing through a new medium

Question 15

Hint 1: If the switch is 'open', the current cannot flow through the bottom resistor

Hint 2: When the switch is closed, the total resistance in the circuit will decrease

Question 16

Hint 1: Use P = I^{2}R

Question 17

Hint 1: Use C = QV

Hint 2: Remember that μ is 10^{-6}

Question 18

Hint 1: Be careful to use the correct equation, rather than the equation for work done moving a charged particle through a field

Hint 2: The equation you want has a ½ in it

Question 19

Hint 1: There will never be a steady charge or discharge in the capacitor

Hint 2: As the capacitor becomes more charged, it has a larger resistance.

Hint 3: This would increase the share of the voltage it receives

Question 20

Hint 1: Take the biggest percentage uncertainty and go with it

Section 2

Question 1

1a)i)A) Hint 1: Use cosine

1a)i)B) Hint 2: Use sine

1a)ii) Hint 3: It is accelerating downwards at 9.8ms^{-2}

1a)ii) Hint 4: Try using s = ut + ½at^{2}

1a)iii) Hint 5: Calculate the maximum height (remember to add on the 1.5m starting height) and then calculate the distance it falls in 0.45s.

1a)iii) Hint 6: Find the difference between these two numbers

1b) Hint 7: Consider the difference between the vertical movement (identical) and the horizontal movement (different). How would that affect the outcome?

Question 2

2a)i) Hint 1: The height is constant, so the upward forces must be balanced with the downwards forces

2a)i) Hint 2: Remember to add both the masses together when calculating the downward force (weight)

2a)ii) Hint 3: Use P = V^{2}/R

2a)iii) Hint 4: If the weight has reduced, what happens to the overall unbalanced force?

2b) Hint 5: The drones are symmetrical, so each drone applies the same force on the box

2b) Hint 6: Only consider the vertical components

2b) Hint 7: 2Tcos(35°) is the upwards force

Question 3

3a) Hint 1: m_{1}u_{1} + m_{2}u_{2} = m_{1}v_{1} + m_{2}v_{2}

3a) Hint 2: From the graph, u_{1} = 0.5 and v_{1} = 0.02

3b) Hint 3: Impulse is the same as change in momentum

3b) Hint 4: Find the momentum before (m × u) and after (m × v) and find the difference

3c)) Hint 5: An elastic collision means that the kinetic energy was conserved in the collision

Question 4

Hint 1: Have you considered projectiles?

Hint 2: Have you considered relativity? (Not special relativity though!)

Hint 3: What about stopping the car?

Question 5

5a) Hint 1: You should think about this 'cosmically'

5b)i) Hint 2: Just use their value of the Hubble constant in the equation above

5b)ii)A) Hint 3: What do you think of their 'line of best fit'?

5b)ii)B) Hint 4: How could you fix that?

5c)) Hint 5: It is not dark matter, but it is dark something....

Question 6

6a)i) Hint 1: W = QV

6a)i) Hint 2: Remember the charge of an electron is in your data booklet!

6a)ii) Hint 3: If you know the work done on the electron from rest, then you know how much kinetic energy it has at the end.

6a)ii) Hint 4: Remember the mass of an electron is in your data booklet as well!

6b) Hint 5: If the potential difference is larger, would that effect the speed of the electrons?

6b) Hint 6: If the electrons are moving through the tube faster, will the screen appear brighter or dimmer?

6b) Hint 7: If more electrons are hitting the screen each second, the glow on the screen will be brighter.

6c) Hint 8: Where do particles get accelerated in the LHC? What about on this model?

6c) Hint 9: Do the particles in the LHC have a track?

6c) Hint 10: What force is causing the ball to go around in a circle?

6c) Hint 11: How do they collide particles in the LHC? Does it involve pushing a block in the way?

Question 7

7a) Hint 1: Could this have something to do with the work function/threshold frequency?

7b)i) Hint 2: The minimum energy for 'something' to happen

7b)ii) Hint 3: There will now be fewer photons hitting the metal plate, but will each photon’s energy be different?

7b)ii) Hint 4: If the energy of the incoming photon is the same, then the energy of the out-going electron must also be the same. It will just happen less often.

7c) Hint 5: If the threshold frequency is less, would you expect the line to start before or after the one on the graph?

7d) Hint 6: If the energy is not a continuous supply of energy, then it must come in bursts, like a particle!

Question 8

8a)i) Hint 1: What does phase mean for a wave? For bright spots would you want to meet in phase or out of phase?

8a)ii) Hint 2: mλ = dsin(θ)

8a)ii) Hint 3: Remember that d is the distance between the lines, not the amount of lines per millimetre

8a)iii) Hint 4: If d gets smaller and mλ stays the same, what must happen to θ?

8a)iv)) Hint 5: The waves start at the same point, have the same frequency, wavelength and speed, so they have a constant phase relationship.

8b) Hint 6: Since it splits the waves on two planes, it must have slits both vertically and horizontally.

Question 9

9a) Hint 1: The angle in air is 45°, and the angle in the material is 22°

9a) Hint 2: n = sin(θ_{air}) / sin(θ_{mat})

9b)i) Hint 3: You need it for total internal reflection, so what must the angle of refraction be?

9b)ii) Hint 4: Look for an equation with θ_{c} in it.

9b)iii) Hint 5: Remember that you have the critical angle, so if the angle is larger than θ_{c} then it will just reflect

9b)iii) Hint 6: Remember that all triangles have angles that add up to 180°

9c) Hint 7: If the refractive index is lower, will it refract more or less?

Question 10

10a) Hint 1: There is a dense thing in the middle

10a) Hint 2: There are these tiny things which float around at different levels which represent something about them

10b) Hint 3: First things first, find the difference in energy levels between the two energy levels

10b) Hint 4: This energy is the same as the energy of the photon emitted

10b) Hint 5: You can use E = hf to find the frequency. Remember to find h in your data booklet!

10c) Hint 6: First things first, we need to find the redshift (z)

10c) Hint 7: You can find z using the two given wavelengths

10c) Hint 8: The wavelength observed in the laboratory is the rest wavelength, and the one from the distant galaxy is the observed wavelength

10c) Hint 9: Once you have z, you can use the recessional velocity equation and you can find v

Question 11

11a) Hint 1: Remember it is not just the voltage in the circuit!

11b) Hint 2: The internal resistance will be equal to the negative of the gradient

11b) Hint 3: The gradient is found by rise/run, or (vertical change) / (horizontal change)

11c) Hint 4: If the battery doesn’t give the electrons enough energy, they can't do what?

Question 12

12a)i) Hint 1: Each box is on the vertical axis is worth 1V

12a)ii) Hint 2: Remember that f = 1/T

12a)ii) Hint 3: Each box on the horizontal axis is worth 0.5s

12a)iii) Hint 4: Diodes will only work when current flows through them in one direction

12a)iii) Hint 5: Do you notice anything about how the diodes have been connected?

12b) Hint 6: First things first, it is a potential divider, so using the peak voltage, find out how much of the peak voltage will be used on the 82 ohm resistor.

12b) Hint 7: Once you have this, you have the peak voltage over the resistor. Use the root mean square equation to find the rms voltage across it.

Question 13

13a) Hint 1: Just plug in the numbers above into the equation above. Make sure to not confuse the pressure and the density, as the symbols look similar.

13b)i) Hint 2: Use a good amount of the graph paper, make sure you write units on your axes and make sure your line of best fit has an equal amount of points on either side of it.

13b)ii) Hint 3: Use rise/run, or or (vertical change) / (horizontal change), on your line of best fit.

13b)iii) Hint 4: Your gradient will be the density multiplied by g.

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