Hints offered by N Hopley

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Section 1

Question 1

Hint 1: know that a vector has magnitude and direction

Hint 2: know that mass, energy and speed only have magnitude, and not direction

Question 2

Hint 1: recognise that we have been given values for u, a and t, and we want v

Hint 2: know to use v = u + at

Question 3

Hint 1: know that the gradient of a velocity time graph tells you about the acceleration

Hint 2: know that the steeper the gradient, the greater the acceleration

Question 4

Hint 1: know that the horizontal motion is all that's important here

Hint 2: know that we have constant horizontal velocity, with no acceleration

Hint 3: recognise that we have been given values for s, u, v and t

Hint 4: recognise that s = 3+d

Hint 5: know to use s = vt

Question 5

Hint 1: note that the table rows are in order of increasing distance from Earth

Hint 2: for statement I, look down the column for Age and see if the Age is always increasing row by row

Hint 3: for statement II, consider re-ordering the rows in the table by order of Age, and then look at the trend in the Approximate Surface Temperature

Hint 4: for statement III, look down the column for Approximate Surface Temperature to see if it is always increasing or decreasing

Question 6

Hint 1: know that geostationary orbit means that the satellite does not appear to move, when viewed from the surface of the earth

Hint 2: know that geostationary orbit means that it follows the direction of the Earth's rotation and does one rotation in one day

Hint 3: know that geostationary orbits at located at about 36000km above the surface of the earth

Question 7

Hint 1: calculate the mass of the robot on Earth, using information from the Data Sheet on Page 2 (Gravitational field strengths)

Hint 2: know that the mass does not change on Mars

Hint 3: calculate the weight of the robot on Mars, using information from the Data Sheet on Page 2 (Gravitational field strengths)

Question 8

Hint 1: know that charge = current × time

Hint 2: know that the current is in amperes and the time is in seconds

Question 9

Hint 1: know that we will use V = I R

Hint 2: to obtain the value for R, use the graph to read off the resistance when temperature is 50°C

Hint 3: notice that the scale on the graph for resistance is in kilo-ohms, and not ohms

Question 10

Hint 1: know that an LED is lit when the current flows into it in the direction of it's 'arrow'

Hint 2: know that the current flows from the 'long line' to the 'short line' of the battery

Hint 3: in each diagram, the current flows in a clockwise direction

Hint 4: eliminate all the circuits where the LEDs' arrows are pointing 'against' the flow

Question 11

Hint 1: know that in a light dependent resistor, low light levels means low resistance

Hint 2: when the light level decreases, current can more easily flow through the LDR

Hint 3: in turn, this will allow the transistor to let current flow

Question 12

Hint 1: know that voltage across resistors arranged in parallel will be the same

Hint 2: know that voltage across resistors arranged in series will be the different

Hint 3: know that the source voltage will equal the sum of the voltages that are - in effect - in series

Question 13

Hint 1: recognise that if it is a solid at P, then it changes state during QR and changes again during ST

Hint 2: recognise that it is a liquid for RS and a gas for TU

Hint 3: know that 'specific latent heat of fusion' refers to changing from solid to a liquid

Question 14

Hint 1: recognise that we have been given p, ρ and we know a value for g

Hint 2: recognise that we want the value for h

Hint 3: substitute all the values in for the known letters

Hint 4: rearrange to obtain the value for h

Question 15

Hint 1: know that something parked in the sun generally becomes warmer

Hint 2: know that increased temperature causes air particles to move with greater kinetic energy

Question 16

Hint 1: know that Charles' Law states that V/T is constant if the pressure is kept constant

Hint 2: know that temperature must be measured in Kelvin, not Celsius

Hint 3: work out V/T for the original situation, to get 0.00102389….

Question 17

Hint 1: know that amplitude is half of the vertical distance between a peak and a trough

Hint 2: know that wavelength is the distance to complete one cycle of a wave

Question 18

Hint 1: know that frequency = 1/period

Hint 2: know that period is measured in seconds, not milli-seconds

Hint 3: convert 80ms to seconds

Question 19

Hint 1: know that when the size of the gap or object is much larger than the wavelength of the waves, the waves are only slightly diffracted.

Hint 2: know that when the size of the gap or object is nearly the same as the wavelength of the waves, the diffraction effect is greatest

Hint 3: know that after any diffreaction, the wavelength does not change

Question 20

Hint 1: know that angles of incidence and refraction are always measured relative to the normal

Hint 2: in the diagram given, the normal is the dotted line

Question 21

Hint 1: know that alpha particles are positively charged

Hint 2: positively charged particles are attracted to negative fields, and repelled from positive fields

Hint 3: know that gamma particles have no electrical charge

Hint 4: particles with no electrical charge are not affected by charged fields

Question 22

Hint 1: know that activity is measured to be the number of atoms decaying per second

Hint 2: convert 3 minutes into seconds

Question 23

Hint 1: know that there are 12 months in a year

Hint 2: calculate the total number of hours exposure per year, from 6 flights per month, with each flight being 8 hours

Hint 3: multiply this total by the hourly dose rate, given in the question

Question 24

Hint 1: recognise that we want gamma particles as they will be most easy to monitor after travelling through human flesh

Hint 2: recognise that we want particles with a short half life so that the particles decay quickly

Question 25

Hint 1: half the number 56

Hint 2: half it again

Hint 3: keep halving until you reach 3.5

Hint 4: count the number of times you halved - this is the number of half lives that have happened

Hint 5: use the fact that this number of half lives have happened in 40 hours, to work out one half life

Section 2

Question 1

1a)i) Hint 1: the magnitude of the resultant is the distance from A to E

1a)i) Hint 2: draw a right angled triangle, with AE at the hypothenuse

1a)i) Hint 3: use lengths AB and CD to determine the length of the East-West distance

1a)i) Hint 4: use lengths BC and DE to determine the length of the North-South distance

1a)i) Hint 5: use Pythagoras' Theorem

1a)ii) Hint 6: use the right angled triangle and trigonometry to obtain the angle that AE is below due East

1a)ii) Hint 7: convert the angle to a bearing, or include words to describe the angle size relative to a compass direction

1b) Hint 8: know that average velocity = displacement / time

1b) Hint 9: know that displacement is the magnitude of the resultant, from part (a)(i)

1b) Hint 10: note that average velocity requires a direction to be stated, from part (a)(ii)

1c) Hint 11: know that time = distance / average speed

1c) Hint 12: use the given numbers to calculate the time for the second quadcopter

1c) Hint 13: compare the calculated time to that stated in part (b)

1d) Hint 14: know that a hovering quadcopter must have balanced forces else it would move in a direction

Question 2

2a)i) Hint 1: know that a = (v - u)/t

2a)i) Hint 2: know that we can select any point from the first section of the graph to provide the numbers required

2a)i) Hint 3: read from the graph that u = 0, v = 24, t = 9.5, or possibly that u = 0, v = 10, t = 4

2a)ii) Hint 4: know that F = m a

2a)ii) Hint 5: use F from the question, and a from part (a)(i) to calculate the value for m

2a)iii) Hint 6: know that the pulling force must equal the frictional force plus the unbalanced force

2b) Hint 7: know that the area under a velocity-time graph gives the distance covered

2b) Hint 8: read off the velocity after 8 seconds

2b) Hint 9: work out the area of the triangle that has base length 8 and height 20

Question 3

Hint 1: no hints available for this open ended question

Question 4

4a) Hint 1: know that the star's line spectra should match all of the line spectra from the elements in the star

4a) Hint 2: compare the vertical lines in the bottom row with the vertical lines in the other rows, to find all that match up

4b)i) Hint 3: know that a light year is the distance travelled by light in one year

4b)ii) Hint 4: know to use distance = speed x time

4b)ii) Hint 5: look up the speed of light from the Data Sheet on Page 2 (Speed of light in materials)

4b)ii) Hint 6: calculate the number of seconds in one year

4c) Hint 7: no hints available for this open ended question

Question 5

5a)i) Hint 1: no hints available

5a)ii) Hint 2: know that resistance increases as the length increases

5a)ii) Hint 3: know that the current decreases as the length increases

5a)iii) Hint 4: read along your graph to 0.50m then follow the grid lines up to your plotted line to obtain the predicted current

5a)iv) Hint 5: know that repeating an experiment can give different values that could then be analysed together

5b) Hint 6: recognise that the current does not need to travel the full length of the wire

5b) Hint 7: recognise that as the wire is now effectively shorter, the resistance will be less than that for the whole wire

Question 6

6a)i) Hint 1: recognise that the resistors are in series

6a)i) Hint 2: recognise that the total resistance will be the sum of the individual resistances

6a)i) Hint 3: use V = I R, with V and R known

6a)ii) Hint 4: know to use P = I²R

6b)i) Hint 5: know that resistors in parallel have their total resistance calculated using 1/RT = 1/R1 + 1/R2

6b)i) Hint 6: add in the 120 ohm resistor that is in series to the other two

6b)ii) Hint 7: notice that the total resistance is the same as that in part (a)

6b)ii) Hint 8: conclude that the current will be the same

6b)ii) Hint 9: conclude that the power will also be the same

Question 7

7a) Hint 1: know that Power = Energy / time

7a) Hint 2: know that the units of Power must be in Watts and not kW

7a) Hint 3: replace the values of P and t, to work out the energy

7b)i) Hint 4: look up the specific heat capacity of water from the Data Sheet on Page 2 (Specific heat capacity of materials)

7b)i) Hint 5: use the formula for Energy = specific heat capacity × mass × change in temperature

7b)ii) Hint 6: calculate the maximum surplus energy as the difference between what was given in part (a) and what was needed from (b)(i)

7b)ii) Hint 7: look up the specific latent heat capacity of water from the Data Sheet on Page 2 (Specific latent heat of vaporisation of materials)

7b)ii) Hint 8: use the formula for Energy = specific latent heat capacity × mass

7b)iii) Hint 9: know that not all energy conversions happen without some energy lost in the process, by various other means

Question 8

8a) Hint 1: remember to make reference to what specifically the force is acting upon

8b) Hint 2: know to use p = F / A

8b) Hint 3: recognise that we have the values for p [from before part(a)] and A [from part (b)]

8c)i) Hint 4: know that Boyle's Law states that pV is constant if the temperature is kept constant

8c)i) Hint 5: calculate the new volume from addition of the increase

8c)i) Hint 6: use p1 × V1 = p2 × V2

8c)i) Hint 7: recognise that you have the values for p1, V1 and V2

8c)ii) Hint 8: know that if there is more volume, then the particles collide with the container wall less frequently

8c)ii) Hint 9: this means that the force on the walls is less

8c)ii) Hint 10: resulting in a decrease in pressure

Question 9

9a) Hint 1: know to use v = f λ

9a) Hint 2: know that f must be measured in Hz and not MHz

9a) Hint 3: know that v is the speed of light in air (refer to the Data Sheet on Page 2)

9b) Hint 4: know that the speed of sound is different to the speed of light

9c)i) Hint 5: know to use Ek = (1/2)mv²

9c)i) Hint 6: recognise that we have values for Ek, and m

9c)ii) Hint 7: know that energy conversation nearly always involves loss of energy

Question 10

10a) Hint 1: know that infrared and gamma rays are both types of electromagnetic waves

10b) Hint 2: know that not all electromagnet waves have the same frequency.

10c) Hint 3: no hints available

Question 11

11a)i) Hint 1: know that the angle of refraction is different to the angle of incidence as the ray enters the glass block

11a)i) Hint 2: know that the angles change again as the ray exits the glass block

11a)ii) Hint 3: know that PQ is called the normal

11b) Hint 4: know that the wavelength will be affected by the material that the wave is passing through

11b) Hint 5: know that if the materials are the same, then the wavelengths will be the same

Question 12

12a) Hint 1: no hints available for this open ended question

12b) Hint 2: know that half lives are best calculated over the longest period of time, to ensure the most accurate result

12c)i) Hint 3: know to use D = E/m

12c)i) Hint 4: know that E must be measured in Joules and not μJ

12c)ii) Hint 5: know to use H = D w

12c)ii) Hint 6: recognise that we are told H from the question, and D will come from part (c)(i)

12d) Hint 7: know how radiation affects a photographic film

12d) Hint 8: know that different materials absorb radiation in different ways

Question 13

Hint 1: no hints available for this open ended question

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